skip to content

I really enjoyed Dave Rupert’s Modern alternatives to BEM, which concludes with a link to my redesign. So let’s talk about my seven-layer burrito of styles – what he calls SBRDFLT. What’s that all about?

TL;DR I don’t know yet.

Some day I hope to write a longer post about my overall approach to CSS. My methodology? Sadly, I don’t have an acronym for it yet. The rough summary is use the tools provided to write meaningful code. I think that’s also what Dave is getting at with his post:

While SBRDFLT doesn’t exactly roll off the tongue (”S-Bird Felt”?), maybe it’s time we break out of catchy three letter acronyms and focus on finding good scalable architecture patterns instead.

Setting aside the bigger questions, Dave’s ‘SBRDFLT’ acronym is based on the ‘layers’ I expose in the layer-selection settings below. Roughly, they imply:

@layer spec, browser, reset, default, features, layout, theme;

But you won’t find that ‘SBRDFLT’ layer list anywhere in my code. The first two ‘layers’ are fundamental aspects of the web itself, and I have an additional sub-layer that I’ve been keeping secret. Still, let’s take that list supposed-layer-by-supposed-layer. What have I actually implemented, and what’s the thinking (if any) behind this particular organization?


Cascade Layers allow you to specify exactly which CSS selectors should take priority in any given situation. Later layers will override earlier layers, regardless of the specificity used within each layer. For more info, check out my Complete Guide to Cascade Layers on CSS Tricks.

The first two (implicit) layers

The first two layers – ‘spec’ and ‘browser’ – represent styles that exist on every site, before we even get started. These aren’t technically ‘cascade layers’ as defined by the new @layer syntax, but they work in a similar way, and so I’ve exposed them using similar language.

The CSS specification defines an initial value for every property in CSS. The initial display is inline, The initial color is CanvasText, and so on. Initial values are only applied when no other value is specified through cascade or inheritance. We can think of them as an initial layer that all other styles will override.

You might be thinking that doesn’t sound right – divs default to block display, and links default to a blue color. And you’re right! The browser provides a second layer of defaults called user agent style sheets. This is where paragraphs get their spacing, headings get bigger and bolder text, and an 8px margin is added to the body.

The spec styles aren’t part of any actual style sheet in the cascade, but the browser styles live in a Cascade Origin below our ‘author’ styles. Since cascade layers were designed to work like origins-within-origins, it’s fair to flip that around. We can think of user agent styles as another ‘layer’ below all our layers.

Both initial values and user agent styles are always there, on every website in the world. But in order to see what they look like, we have to turn off all the styles that normally go over top. If you click the ‘browser’ option in the layer-selection settings, I use JavaScript to turn off all my site styles, and let you see the ‘naked’ HTML, as styled by the browser.

Initial ‘spec’ values are a bit harder to see, since we have to turn off browser defaults as well. I do that by applying the Most Normalest Ultimate Reset:

/* add an !important flag if you also need to override your own styles */
*, *::after, *::before {
all: initial;

The result is so extreme that it’s nearly impossible to find your way back to the settings. So I also include a few styles that draw attention back to the layer-selection buttons, and give them basic button styling. I don’t want people getting lost around here.

I haven’t technically created Cascade Layers for either the ‘spec’ or ‘browser’ style options – I only expose them in the UX.

I also get some some default dark-mode support, and theme colors before ever applying CSS – directly from meta tags in the head of my documents:

<meta name="color-scheme" content="dark light">
<meta name="theme-color" media="(prefers-color-scheme: light)" content="hotpink">
<meta name="theme-color" media="(prefers-color-scheme: dark)" content="mediumvioletred">

Actual layers, with styles I actually wrote

This is where I start making suspiciously vague distinctions between layers. I’m trying to balance two slightly different goals here. One is to define a layer structure that works well for me as I redesign the site. The other goal is to make an interesting layer-selection widget, such that each layer option ‘reveals’ a step in the process.

In order to achieve the second goal, I’m thinking through layers a bit differently than I might otherwise. This is still very much a work-in-progress, likely to change over time.

Reset layer

The reset layer represents minor cleanup of legacy browser styles.

In addition to CSS Remedy, I’ve also made tables fluid-by-default, and replaced the 40px indentation used on lists, figures, blockquotes, etc with a more reasonable 1em. Buttons and inputs inherit the global font, [aria-pressed] gets basic styling, replaced elements work how I expect, the root font size is a bit larger, and there’s a readable max line-length on the body. Also, that 8px body margin is replaced by a full 1em margin. I’m wild like that.

At this point, I’m roughly still following the CSS Remedy approach:

CSS Remedy sets CSS properties or values to what they would be if the CSSWG were creating the CSS today, from scratch, and didn’t have to worry about backwards compatibility.

It’s possible that I was overzealous here. Maybe adjusting the font size is not something the CSSWG would do if we could. Maybe some of these styles should move into the default layer instead. I don’t know.

I was tempted to stop here. I really want to keep the styles pretty basic until I’ve made further progress on the content architecture and other goals of the redesign.

Default layer

Reader, I didn’t stop there.

For the default layer, I gave myself slightly wider parameters. What default styles would I design for myself? I’m still trying to think generically about built-in HTML elements & attributes, but I get to make more opinionated choices. These are defaults that I like, even if I don’t think they belong in the browser.

Default config secret sub-layer 🤫

Along the way, I realized my ideal default stylesheet would come with custom properties in two forms:

  1. A few pre-defined color, font, and sizing variables.
  2. Some ‘free’ variables that can be defined later.

For the first part, I considered something like Adam Argyle’s Open Props, but decided I don’t need anything quite so fleshed out. Instead I used some browser defaults as a guide.

There are three font variables – --ui-sans, --ui-serif, and --ui-mono. Operating system UI fonts are generally nicer than browser defaults, while still being a good ‘unbranded’ option.

For colors, I used the CSS System Colors as a guide. I considered using them directly, but found there are some inconsistencies and a11y issues involved with that. Instead, I created custom properties with similar names (--Canvas, --CanvasText, --Link, --VisitedText, etc) and filled them in using the Firefox default values. I didn’t want to think about it too much – just get a set of useful colors with useful semantics behind them.

For sizing, I used a variation on the defaults that we often start with at OddBird. First a --gap (we’ve often called it --gutter), and then divisions of that which I called --half-gap, --shim, and --half-shim. I also like having a larger --spacer for section-breaks.

All of those spacing variable are relative to typography. That starts with a --root font size, and then a --line-height ratio, a calculated --line height, a --measure for readable line-lengths, and a --smaller font size mostly for inline monospace fonts.

I also started using a number of undefined variables throughout. For example, setting a main font-family:

html {
font-family: var(--font-body, var(--var-serif, var(--ui-serif)));

At this point in the code, --font-body and --var-serif are still undefined, so the result is my --ui-serif font stack defined earlier. In future layers I can choose to add a variable serif, or override the body font entirely, just by setting those variables.

All of this is part of the hidden default.config sub-layer. there’s not much use exposing the config to users without also exposing the styles that apply those configurations.

I would appreciate if you don’t tell anyone.

Features layer

Over the years, there are a few code patterns that I’ve come to rely on:

I also added a new one as I was working, which allows me to show inline color-swatches next to a given color value. Here’s rebeccapurple for example.

These patterns are specific to markup conventions on this site, and require CSS in order to function properly. They’re not quite defaults, but they’re a bit more foundational than the themes I might apply in future layers.

Turn off the features layer, and the swatch will disappear, image galleries will go single-column, etc.

Layout & theme layers

I don’t have much to say about these final two layers. I wish I wasn’t so eager to give my site an aesthetic, but here we are. I sometimes get carried away.

My new favorite web resource – The Public Domain Review – inspired me to go find Alegreya Variable, and I came up with a quick color palette based around my favorite CSS colors: mediumvioletred and teal.

These layers are by far the most incomplete and half-assed. Just enough style to make me enjoy the site while I continue working on it.

update [Sep 26, 2022]:

These two layers have been merged. While I’m still using separate files, and could still ‘layer’ them technically – the difference is more in what is being styled rather than in the intent of those styles.

Reflecting on all those layers

For a personal site, this is probably overkill. It’s absolutely clear that I’m writing more CSS than I need. I could combine my reset with my defaults for a more focused baseline, and streamline the stack in general. But I’m intentionally approaching each layer as a complete ‘design’ – even where I plan to override those styles later.

This is an exercise in thinking through what different concerns go into building a site design. I’m trying to give each viewpoint the stand-alone attention that it deserves, to see what I learn from the process. And then I’m layering all those viewpoints, to see how they cascade together.

It’s also an experiment in exposing those layers to users.

None of that is strictly necessary, but it’s enjoyable, and I’m learning as I go. I believe this layered thinking is useful, even if we don’t always need all the layers split out this way.

And it’s a mindset that translates especially well to situations where different teams are contributing to a single product – stacking a design system on top of an external CSS library, and then building a site on top of those. That’s why we designed Cascade Layers in the first place.

Useful or not – I’m having fun playing with my new toys, to see what I discover along the way.




or call it a burrito? sadly these seven layers represent a half-done experiment more than a methodology.



did a talk on “burrito architecture” years back and am still fond of that analogy. It’s the most delicious methodology, provably!

Christopher Kirk-Nielsen


Styles Thoughtfully Ranked And Tastefully Arranged So STRATA, but that's only 6 letters… you definitely need 7 to mirror the layers. Maybe tack on "Rad!" at the end? (silly acronym thoughts aside, this was a v interesting read, good food for thoughts while I redesign my site!)

Andrew Woods


maybe you just need a good name, and not an acronym . Perhaps call it Nachos because it’s like 7 layer dip. and Its Nacho mama’s CSS framework 😄



> that 8px body margin is replaced by a full 1em margin. I’m wild like that 😆👏👏